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What is macular degeneration?
Macular degeneration (also called age-related macular degeneration or AMD) is a condition in which the eye's macula breaks down, causing a gradual or sudden loss of central vision.

Is macular degeneration always caused by age?
Macular degeneration usually affects people over age 65, which is why the term age-related macular degeneration (AMD) often is used to describe the condition. However, certain drugs can cause macular degeneration, and some cases are inherited, such as Stargardt's disease, which can affect children and young adults.

Is it true that macular degeneration is a growing problem?
Yes. Dr. Burt Dubow, optometrist and board member, explains, "Experts think there are a number of reasons for this: more ultraviolet light in our environment due to a thinning ozone layer, people living longer, environmental pollutants, smoking, poor diet, obesity, etc." Another factor may be our aging population, since the risk for macular degeneration rises with age.

Although there are no sure ways to prevent macular degeneration, you should wear eyeglasses or sunglasses that provide 100 percent UV protection and a brimmed hat when outdoors. You should also consider exercising, not smoking, eating a healthy diet that is high in dark green leafy vegetables (spinach, kale, collard greens, etc.) and visiting your eye care practitioner on a regular basis for eye exams to check for AMD.

Who's most at risk for macular degeneration?
If you're over age 65, a smoker, white or have a family member with AMD, you have an increased risk for macular degeneration.

You're also at risk if you take these drugs: Aralen (chloroquine) or phenothiazine derivatives [Thorazine (chlorpromazine), Mellaril (thioridazine), Prolixin (fluphenazine), Trilafon (perphenazine) and Stelazine (trifluoperazine)].

Is there any way to prevent macular degeneration?
Doctors aren't sure how to prevent macular degeneration. Research suggests that ultraviolet light (and possibly blue light) factors into the problem, so sunglasses that block these solar rays might have a protective effect.

What you eat also affects your macula. Researchers think that antioxidants (vitamins A, C and E), zinc, lutein, zeaxanthin and essential fatty acids all can aid in preventing macular degeneration.

Exercising and quitting smoking also might reduce your risk of AMD.

An Amsler grid consists of straight lines, with a reference dot in the center. Someone with macular degeneration may see some of the lines as wavy or blurred, with some dark areas at the center.

What are the signs and symptoms of macular degeneration?
Early signs of macular degeneration include: straight lines appearing wavy, fuzzy vision, and shadowy areas in your central vision. Your eye doctor may find indicators before you have any symptoms, so regular eye exams can mean an early diagnosis.

One way to tell if you are having these vision problems is to view an Amsler grid, which is a chart of black lines arranged in a graph pattern.

What are the different types of macular degeneration?
Macular degeneration is classified as either dry or wet. The dry form is more common than the wet (about 90 percent of patients). It may result from the aging and thinning of macular tissues, depositing of pigment in the macula or a combination of the two.

In the wet form, new blood vessels grow beneath the retina and leak blood and fluid. This leakage causes retinal cells to die and creates blind spots in central vision.

Is macular degeneration curable?
No, but treatment can slow or even stop the progression of the wet form, so the earlier you're diagnosed, the better.

What macular degeneration treatments are currently available?
Lucentis received FDA approval in June 2006 for treatment of wet macular degeneration, and has shown very positive results for preventing additional vision loss. Vision often is improved with Lucentis. The drug works by preventing development of abnormal blood vessels in the inner back of the eye, as does another FDA-approved drug known as Macugen.

Visudyne was the first drug therapy for the wet form of age-related macular degeneration (specifically, patients with predominantly classic subfovealchoroidal neovascularization). Visudyne is used in combination with a laser in a type of treatment called photodynamic therapy. Visudyne can stabilize or even improve vision.

Photocoagulation is a type of laser surgery that can sometimes slow vision loss in patients with the wet form of macular degeneration.
Some doctors also recommend antioxidant and zinc supplementation, which a recent study found to reduce patients' risk of developing advanced AMD by 28 percent.

Patients with vision problems caused by macular degeneration often can benefit from low vision devices to help them read, use a computer and more.


Are both eyes done at the same time?
No, each eye is operated on separately, usually about 1-4 weeks apart.

Am I asleep during the procedure?
No, you are awake the entire time. You will be given some medication to relax you during the surgery. In some cases, eye drops are the only anesthesia needed.

Will my glasses need to be changed?
Yes, your prescription will change following cataract surgery. In most cases, you will still require at least a reading prescription to do near work. If you still require a distance prescription after surgery, it will be a few weeks until the eye is stable enough to obtain this prescription. Your optometrist will provide this prescription for you. You may continue to wear your old glasses for distance and reading, or, you may see better without any correction for distance after surgery. Even though the eye that just had surgery may be blurry with your old glasses, you are not hurting your eyes to wear them. In fact, they will probably help you to see clearer in the non-operated eye. You may remove the lens from your glasses for the eye that had surgery first if this helps. If you plan on driving within a few days of surgery, ask your doctor.

Is an implant lens always used?
With the exception of children with cataracts, an implant lens is used to replace the lens that was clouded with the cataract. The implant is similar to a very small contact lens. It doesn’t feel any different in your eye than the lens that is being removed. With few exceptions, the implant almost never needs to be replaced.

How long does it take to recover and see again?
Eye surgery is like surgery on any other body part, there will be a period of recovery. Fortunately for cataract surgery, this time is minimal. Your vision will be blurry right after surgery. No two patients are the same, but most patients notice an improvement in their vision the day after surgery. The vision improves day-by-day and by the 5-7th day, most patients are very satisfied with their distance vision. In most cases the eye will be blurry for reading and near work. You will probably need help to see up-close and it is fine to use your old glasses for reading until the eye is stable enough for a custom glasses prescription (often this takes 3-4 weeks). Remember, no two eyes are the same, and the second eye may seeem blurrier or even better than the first eye right after surgery. This is normal and the distance vision will usually improve with time. It is important to use your eye drops as instructed after surgery to increase the chances of healing well.

Will it hurt?
Most patients feel mild to moderate irritation for the first few days after surgery, “like an eyelash or a grain of sand” is in the eye. This feeling should get better with each passing day, and the medicated drops you use after surgery will help comfort the eye. Artificial tears may also be used as often as necessary to reduce irritation following surgery. It is important to remember, no two eyes are exactly the same, even if they are both your eyes! One eye may be more blurred, more red, and feel scatchier than the other after surgery. This is normal, as one eye may take a bit longer to heal than the other.


Diabetic Retinopathy

The retina lines the back of the eye like the film of a camera. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a condition that may affect people with all types of diabetes. DR affects the blood vessels at the back of the eye. Vessels may leak fluid or bleed, or may close down altogether.
The risk of developing DR increases with duration of diabetes. The risk is also related to the level of diabetic control and to other factors such as blood pressure. Diabetic control may worsten in pregnancy.

There may be no symptoms initially
Blurring of vision
Sudden profound loss of vision

All diabetics should have their retinae examined early in the course of their diabetes, and then at regular intervals thereafter. The frequency of examination may differ from person to person; an ophthalmologist can advise you on this.

Diabetic Retinopathy - FAQS

Q. What should I do if I have diabetes?
A. Ensure you have regular annual dilated eye examinations.
These should be more frequent if you have signs of diabetic retinopathy.
Ensure you keep your blood sugar level as well controlled as possible.
If you have high blood pressure or elevated cholesterol, see your GP to ensure these are well controlled.

Q. How do I know if I am at risk of getting diabetic retinopathy?
A. If you have diabetes type 1 or type 2 you are at risk of developing diabetic retinopathy.
The longer you have had diabetes the greater your risk of developing diabetic retinopathy.

Q. What treatment is there for diabetic retinopathy?
A. Not all diabetic retinopathy requires treatment. Treatment is individualised and depends on the type and extent of the retinopathy.
Treatment options include laser, injections into the vitreous (gel) in the back of the eye, and retinal surgery.

Q. What should I look out for?
A.Blurred vision.
Floaters or flashes.
Sudden loss of vision.

 Dry Eye

The tear film over the surface of the eye is a complex mixture of water, lipid (fatty substances), mucus and proteins. The term “dry eye” is a bit misleading because it suggests there is insufficient water. While that may be the case in some people, in others it is a deterioration in the quality of the tears rather than insufficient fluid.

The 3 main constituents of the tear film are:

1. Aqueous – the watery layer produced by the lacrimal (tear) gland. Aqueous deficiency may occur in isolation or may be associated with dry mouth (sicca syndrome) and inflammation of the joints (Sjogren’s syndrome).
2. Oil – produced by the meibomian or tarsal glands in the eyelids. Disruption of the oily layer may be associated with inflammation of the eyelid margin (blepharitis).
3. Mucus – produced by goblet cells in the conjunctiva (the membrane over the white of the eye). A mucin deficiency may be age-related or may be associated with inflammation of the conjunctiva.
The usual complaint is of gritty, scratchy red eyes. People often say they feel they have grains of sand in their eyes. There may be a crust on the eyelashes in the mornings.

Dry eye syndrome has many causes, including being part of the normal aging process. Occasionally it is associated with disease processes elsewhere in the body. Contact lenses may aggravate a dry eye.

 Symptoms include:

• Burning and itching of eye/s
• Persistent dryness
• General eye discomfort
• Scratchy, gritty feeling in eye/s
• Feeling of a foreign body
• Blurred vision
• Sensitivity to bright light and glare

 Eye Donation

What is an Eye Donation?
Donating eyes after the death of a person is called eye donation.

What is cornea?
The cornea is the clear surface at the front of the eye and is the main focusing element. Should the cornea become cloudy from disease, injury, infection or any other cause, vision will be drastically reduced.

What is a cornea transplant?
The cornea transplant is the surgical procedure, which replaces a disc-shaped segment of an impaired cornea with a similarly shaped piece of a healthy donor cornea.

How prevalent is cornea transplantation?
Cornea transplants are the most frequently performed human transplant procedure. In fact, there are more cornea transplants than all other organ transplants combined. In the last 30 years, hundreds of thousands cornea transplants have been performed, restoring sight to men, women, and children ranging in age from nine days to 103 years.

How soon after donation must a cornea be transplanted?
Cornea transplant is usually performed within 4 days after donation, depending upon the method of cornea preservation.

What is an eye bank?
The eye bank is a nonprofit organization that obtains, medically evaluates and distributes eyes, which are donated by compassionate citizens for use in cornea, transplants, sclera reconstructions, research and education. To ensure patient safety, the donated eyes and the donor's medical history are evaluated by the eminent eye bank staff in accordance to strict medical standards.

Who can be an eye donor?
Anyone. Cataracts, poor eyesight and age do not prevent someone from becoming a donor. Prospective donors should indicate their intention on donor cards. Perhaps the most important single thing you can do is make your immediate near & dear ones aware of your wishes to make sure they are carried out.

Why should eyes be donated?
Donated human eyes and corneal tissue are necessary for the preservation and restoration of sight and are used for transplantation, research and education. Over 90 percent of all cornea transplant operations performed each year successfully restores vision to people suffering from corneal blindness.

How can I become a donor?
First and foremost, you need to ensure that your family and near and dear ones know about your intent to donate your eyes. Families may give consent for donation. It is most helpful if they know how you feel in advance. A donor card can serve as an indication to your family and the hospitals of your intention to be an eye donor. Click here to pledge your eyes!

Will eye donation affect the appearance of the donor?
No. Great care is taken to preserve the appearance of the donor. No one will be able to see that anything has been done.

Will the donor's family pay or receive any fees?
No. It is illegal to buy and sell human eyes, organs and tissues. Any costs associated with eye procurement are absorbed by the eye bank.

Is there any delay in funeral arrangements?
No. Eye tissue is procured within hours of death, so families may proceed as planned with funeral arrangements.

What are the benefits to the eye donor family?
In addition to fulfilling your loved one's wishes, eye donation can offer comfort to a grieving family. Just knowing a small part of our loved one is going to give life to someone by helping him or her see in this world is consolation. Something to hold on to in time of sorrow.

When does the donation take place?
The surgical removal of the eye tissue is performed soon after the time of death, ensuring the tissue is in the best possible condition for transplant. This also makes sure that the funeral arrangements are not delayed in any way.

Can the next of kin give consent to a donation if the deceased person has not signed an eye donation form?
Yes, the relatives of the deceased can decide on the eye donation of their beloved one.

Can a person who is blind due to retinal or optic nerve disease donate his eyes?
Yes, provided the cornea of the donor is clear.

Can a living person donate his eyes?
No, donation from living persons is not accepted.

Will the recipient be informed of the donor's details?
No, the gift of sight is made anonymously.

Are there any dedicated telephone numbers for calling the Eye Bank for eye donation?
Yes. You can call 1919 across the country to contact any of the eye banks. You could also log on to for more information. Eye Banks usually works 24 hours a day and 365 days in a year.

How is the donor suitability determined?
If potential donors are carefully screened for medical suitability and high risk factors. HIV, Hepatitis B and syphilis tests are run before any tissue is released for surgery. Should any tissue be deemed unsuitable for transplant, the information is then scrutinized for the possibility of use of research. Every eye bank's primary concern is for the safety of the potential recipients, eye bank staff and researchers.

Will the quality of medical care be affected if one is known to be a donor?
Absolutely not. Strict laws protect the potential donor. Legal guidelines must be followed before death can be certified. A Physician certifying a patient's death cannot be in any way involved with eye procurement or with the transplant.

What happens after eye donation?
The donor's family receives a certificate of appreciation from the eye bank. The eyes are taken to the eye bank and evaluated by a trained eye bank staff
Tests are carried out and the tissue is sent to the corneal surgeon
The waiting list is referred and the recipient is called for corneal transplant
Corneal transplant is performed
Periodic follow-up of the recipient is done over time to ensure that the graft is successful

How does a cornea become opaque?
Iatrogenic (Malpractice, Improper Post-op. care after any eye surgery)

Can the whole eye be transplanted?
No. Only the cornea and the sclera (white part of the eye) can be transplanted. The whole eye can be used for valuable research into eye diseases and treatments and education.

How do research and education benefit from eye donation?
In addition to corneas used for surgical procedures, more than 35,000 eyes are used annually for research and education. Research into glaucoma, retinal disease, complications of diabetes and other sight disorders benefit from donations because many eye problems cannot be simulated - only human eyes can be used. These studies advance the discovery of the causes and effects of specific eye conditions and lead to new treatments and cures.

Are there religious conflicts to eye, organ or tissue donation?
No. Donation is a gift of sight or sight to others. As such, eye, organ and tissue donations are consistent with the beliefs and attitudes of major religions.

What are the functions of an eye bank?
Availability of trained staff round the clock to attend the calls
Evaluate and provide quality corneas to corneal surgeons
Enable corneal research using eyes unsuitable for grafts
Find newer techniques, improve preservation methods and train corneal surgeons
Increase public awareness about eye donation


Glaucoma FAQs

What is glaucoma?
Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases in which the normal fluid pressure inside the eyes slowly rises, leading to vision loss or even blindness. Open-angle glaucoma is the most common form of the disease.

What causes it?
Clear fluid flows in and out of small space at the front of the eye called the anterior chamber. This fluid bathes and nourishes nearby tissues. If this fluid drains too slowly, pressure builds up and damages the optic nerve. Though this buildup may lead to an increase in eye pressure, the effect of pressure on the optic nerve differs from person to person. Some people may get optic nerve damage at low pressure levels while others tolerate higher pressure levels.

Who is most likely to get it?
Although anyone can get glaucoma, the following people are at higher risk:
• Diabetic/Hypertensive over age 40
• Everyone over age 60
• People with a family history of glaucoma.

What are the symptoms?
At first, there are no symptoms. Vision stays normal, and there is no pain.

However, as the disease progresses, a person with glaucoma may notice his or her side vision gradually failing. That is, objects in front may still be seen clearly, but objects to the side may be missed. As the disease worsens, the field of vision narrows and blindness results.

How is it detected?
Many people may know of the "air puff" test or other tests used to measure eye pressure in an eye examination. But this test alone cannot detect glaucoma. Glaucoma is found most often during an eye examination through dilated pupils. Dilating pupils involves putting drops into the eyes during the exam to enlarge the pupils. This procedure allows the eye care professional to see more of the inside of the eye to check for signs of glaucoma.

How can it be treated?
Although open-angle glaucoma cannot be cured, it can usually be controlled. The most common treatments are as follows:

Medications: These may be either in the form of eyedrops or pills. Some drugs are designed to reduce pressure by slowing the flow of fluid into the eye. Others help to improve fluid drainage.

For most people with glaucoma, regular use of medications will control the increased fluid pressure. But these drugs may stop working over time, or they may cause side effects. If a problem occurs, the eye care professional may select other drugs, change the dose, or suggest other ways to deal with the problem.
Laser surgery: During laser surgery, a strong beam of light is focused on the part of the anterior chamber where the fluid leaves the eye. This surgery results in a series of small changes that make it easier for fluid to exit the eye. Over time, the effect of laser surgery may wear off. Patients who have this form of surgery may need to keep taking glaucoma drugs.
Surgery: Surgery can also help fluid escape from the eye and thereby reduce the pressure. However, surgery is usually reserved for patients whose pressure cannot be controlled with eyedrops, pills, or laser surgery.



LASIK Laser Corrective Surgery FAQ'S:
Can Anyone Guarantee 20/20 Vision?
What is the right age to have LASIK laser vision correction
Does LASIK Laser surgery hurt?
Give me a step-by-step of the LASIK procedure?
How long will the correction last?
How accurate is the Excimer laser?
What does the patient experience during the procedure?
Are there any negative long term effects?
What are the risks and side effects of laser LASIK surgery?
If I require surgery to correct defects, can both eyes to be treated at the same time?
What are the long term effects of LASIK?
How long do I have to wait until I drive and return to work after the surgery?
What is the recovery time after the procedure and what can I expect?
Can I wear contact lenses after LASIK surgery?
Will LASIK surgery be any good for me because I am over 50?
Is this surgery permanent?
Can my vision be worse than before the procedure?
What is the worst possible complication from the surgery?

Can Anyone Guarantee 20/20 Vision?
No. No honest surgeon can absolutely guarantee a certain result from the surgery. We can quite accurately let you know the probability of you achieving 20/20 vision based on large domestic and international studies using this exciting technology.
95% of patients with low through moderate ranges of nearsightedness and/or astigmatism achieve normal or near normal natural vision from just one surgery with LASIK. For those who do not achieve this quality of vision from one surgery, enhancement surgery can usually give the rest of the desired correction.
People with high ranges 8 to 15 diopters of nearsightedness; 3 to 5 diopters of astigmatism also have a very good probability of achieving good natural vision, but an enhancement surgery is more likely to be necessary for full correction.

What is the right age to have LASIK laser vision correction?
There is no strict age requirement. However, most individuals by the age of 20-21 have reached a point at which their glasses prescription will remain relatively stable. The key to being a good candidate is that your glasses and/or contact lens prescription should be relatively stable.
We have treated patients 19-70 years of age with LASIK.

Does LASIK Laser surgery hurt?
No. The laser procedure itself is virtually painless. You will be aware of a support which helps to hold your eye open. A slight pressure may be felt during the procedure. You will be aware of the laser sounds while you watch a red flashing light..
The majority of patients experience no significant discomfort. Approximately 10% of patients experience more significant eye discomfort and may need to take recommended medications to relieve it. Little to no discomfort is associated with LASIK.

Give me a step-by-step of the LASIK procedure?
Throughout the procedure you are awake. Eye drops are the only anesthesia. Sedation is not necessary, but you may take an oral tranquilizer. Your eyelids and lashes are cleansed for sterility and a sticky drape keeps your lashes out of the way. Your lids are gently opened. You look at a blinking red light which keeps your eye properly positioned. During the flap creation phase you have a sensation of pressure and a grayness of vision. Then the laser is used and you will hear a rapid clicking sound. The flap is replaced and it takes about 3 minutes for it to stick down. After the procedure, you will leave with an eye shield and eye drops to help your eye heal. Also, your vision may be a little blurry for a few days. The procedure takes under 10 minutes per eye.
Most patients are able to return to work in 24 hours, and over three or four weeks, have continuing improvement in their vision.

How long will the correction last?
The laser correction will probably last for the rest of your life. The cornea is a very stable tissue. Current studies show that once the cornea has been modified by the current Excimer laser protocol such as LASIK, it tends to remain stable and stay modified permanently, as best we can determine through studying many thousands of patients. There are rare cases of regression, which may be corrected with further surgery, but the vast majority of corrected eyes remain stable. 

How accurate is the Excimer laser?
This is a human hair which has been sculpted by the Excimer Laser. Each pulse of the 193nm laser will ablate or eliminate one three-thousandths of one millimeter using cold energy. It is this level of unparalleled accuracy which allows the programmed Excimer laser to precisely sculpt the human cornea to reduce nearsightedness.

What does the patient experience during the procedure?
Each patient goes through a comprehensive series of eye tests and examinations before consulting with the surgeon to discuss and plan the specifics of personal visual correction.
For the laser surgery itself, patients sit comfortably in a professional chair which is reclined to a horizontal position. Experience with new topical anesthetics and analgesics mean that no injections are necessary. The eye is anaesthetized with drops, to ensure a painless experience. The lids are gently held open with a lid support. Patients watch a flashing red light while the laser uses cold energy pulsed to precisely vaporize microscopic layers of tissue to correct the focus. Actual laser surgery time ranges from 10 to 90 seconds in most cases. Most patients are in the surgery suite for about 15 minutes.

Are there any negative long term effects?
The medical community can only speak for the future by assessing the data from the surgeries performed under formal studies. Such studies on Excimer Laser refractive surgery have been carried out in the US under FDA scrutiny and by the international medical community. The Excimer Laser data to date reveals a very positive healing response of the eye giving doctors no reason to be significantly concerned about effects beyond ten years of study.
The laser penetration is so shallow and precise that it appears not to have a significant effect on living cell function even immediately beneath the treated optical zone. After healing, these eyes have not shown negative effects, giving doctors even more confidence about the ongoing health of the eye after LASIK surgery.

What are the risks and side effects of laser LASIK surgery?
LASIK or Laser Assisted In-situ Keratomileusis adds a controlled lamellar keratectomy to the refractive laser ablation. The laser power treatment is thus performed under the surface of the cornea with some change in risks and benefits of the procedure. Possible risks of LASIK include:
• Creating a cap of corneal tissue instead of a flap by fully removing the top of the cornea rather than just lifting it -- This removed tissue still heals back into place but requires extra care in positioning.
• Loss or damage of the corneal cap.
• Infection -- Very rare and usually controlled with medications.
• Induced regular or irregular astigmatism
• Epithelial tissue growth underneath the new corneal flap -- This can usually be solved by lifting the flap and gently removing these tissue cells.
• Increased or decreased response to surgery -- Surgery can usually be enhanced or modified by lifting the cap and removing more tissue with the laser. Sometimes other types of surgery can be combined with LASIK to give improved results.
Side effects are generally minimal following LASIK surgery since most of the surface of the cornea has not been affected by the procedure. However, people who have the surgery may experience some light sensitivity and glare for a few days or weeks. Full visual stabilization may take several weeks.

If I require surgery to correct defects, can both eyes to be treated at the same time?
It is possible for most candidates to have surgery on both eyes on the same day, conditional on the surgeon's approval and the patient's careful informed consent. Even the safest surgery carries some small statistical risks. Therefore, it is most conservative to separate surgeries for the two eyes by some measure of time, depending on patient need and situation.

What are the long term effects of LASIK?
The 9 year follow-up of patients undergoing laser vision correction procedures is very stable. In fact the behavior of an eye that has had LASIK parallels the behavior of a normal eye that has not had surgery. LASIK has been performed since 1991. Based on what we have learned from performing eye surgery over time, we know that if an eye is "stable" in its vision at 2 years, then it should remain stable at 20 years and beyond. The eye behaves in a predictable manner. Since visual results from laser vision correction procedures have been stable after 9 years, then they should remain stable over a lifetime.

How long do I have to wait until I drive and return to work after the surgery?
A patient is legal to drive with at least one eye 20/40 or better. However, most importantly, a patient should refrain from driving until they feel comfortable with the vision having changed in their operated eye. 
Returning to work is largely dependent upon the individual and the type of work they do. Most people can return to work within 2 to 4 days of the surgery. Many choose to do light work, as in computer use, within hours of laser treatment. Obviously, operating heavy machinery or higher risk activities requires stability and adaptation to vision changes.

What is the recovery time after the procedure and what can I expect?
All patients immediately after LASIK will see blurry. In fact, for the first six hours after LASIK normal symptoms include: blurred vision, light sensitivity, eye irritation (similar to the sensation that an eyelash is trapped between the eye and lid), and tearing. After the first six hours, these symptoms resolve.
All patients are instructed to use antibiotic and steroid eyedrops for about one week after surgery.
One cannot hurt the eye by using it after surgery. Therefore, watching TV, computer work, reading, etc will not affect the outcome of LASIK.
Restrictions after LASIK: no eye or eyelid rubbing or forceful eyelid closure (squeezing), no eyelid makeup, no swimming for 4 days.
Normal activity that does not include pressure on the eye such as walking, jogging, routine work is allowed the day after LASIK
Discomfort is rare and minimal. Usually vision is immediately improved but may fluctuate for several weeks. For a week a shield is worn over the eye at night until complete healing occurs. The eyes and lids cannot be rubbed to protect the flap. Drops are used for several weeks. Glasses, if necessary, for reading and distance are prescribed in two weeks. Retreatment occasionally is necessary and is performed as soon as the eye is stable but usually no sooner than two months.

Can I wear contact lenses after LASIK?
Most patients do not require the use of contact lenses after LASIK. There are some circumstances where contacts may be desirable or beneficial after refractive surgery. Generally, if a patient were able to wear contact lenses comfortably prior to surgery, they will be successful in wearing them again after surgery. As with initial lens wear, it may require some time to build up to the same number of hours that a patient was able to wear contact lenses before surgery.

Will LASIK surgery be any good for me because I am over 50?
Laser LASIK corrective surgery work effectively to correct the general focus of eyes, no matter what your age. However, the fine focusing lens inside your eye firms with maturity and no longer provides the capability of clear reading vision past 50 years of age. This means that even if you have surgery, you will still need reading glasses to see clearly up close from about age 50 or 55 years of age. Laser surgery may be able to give you clear vision for all the other focal distances, without regular glasses, for the rest of your life. You may also wish to consider monovision. 

If you are over 60 years of age, and have any degree of cataracts, you may benefit from waiting to have your vision corrected at the time of your cataract surgery. The lens placed in your eye at the time of cataract surgery can correct your nearsightedness or farsightedness. Most people develop cataracts sometime between 60 and 85 years of age. Arrangements can sometimes be made to have your cataract surgery early, even before you develop a noticeable cataract, for the sake of enhanced focusing benefits. However, health care plans will not cover any expense unless a significant cataract has developed. The earliest signs of cataracts are increasing glare such as with night driving, reading, and driving into sunset or in inclement weather. A careful eye examination will reveal the best option for your particular circumstance.

Is this surgery permanent?
Yes, the results of LASIK are permanent. They are however "adjustable" such that future correction of near-sightedness, far-sightedness or astigmatism can be performed to "touch-up" the original procedure.

Can my vision be worse than before the procedure?
In very rare cases, yes. In order for vision to turn out worse than it was before the surgery, a significant complication would need to arise. In our experience, these complications have not lead to loss of vision but in a slight reduction in the quality of vision and are generally associated with astigmatism or haze resulting from the surgery. Some of these complications are treatable with further surgery, but some are not. 

In large studies approximately 3 patients in 100 will experience a measurable decrease in their best corrected vision. These uncommon patients most often have a significant improvement in their uncorrected vision. This means that they see better without glasses or contacts than they did before surgery, however the very best they can see with correction is diminished. In some cases this can be due to a temporary film related to healing. Other causes may be amenable to enhancement or further treatment. Finally, as with any surgery, there are some risks of significant complications which encourage you to seek care by most highly trained and experienced surgeon.

What is the worst possible complication from the surgery?
Amongst the worst possible complications of LASIK is a serious infection which could lead to a scarring of the cornea or possibly even loss of the eye. Infections only very rarely occur because the laser is performed under sterile surgical conditions immediately followed by the application of prophylactic antibiotics. When the rare infection does occur, it can usually be controlled with topical antibiotics resulting in little or no ultimate loss of vision. Even if the cornea should happen to become seriously scarred because of an infection, corneal transplants are usually possible to restore clear vision again.


Squint - Strabismus 

Q. What can I do if I think my child has a squint?
A. Get your child’s eyes checked by your Eye Specialists for a consultation.
If you or your child have a Community Services card you may be eligible for a government subsidy which may cover the costs of this consultation

Q. What is the treatment for squint?

A. Treatment depends on the type of squint and may include spectacles, patching, eyedrops, surgery or any combination of these. What is right for one child is not necessarily right for the next. We can advise you on the best treatment options for you or your child.